## HDU Multi-University Training 2019, Contest 4/5

Brute Force?/ Case Analysis: Contest 4, Problem M
First we can brute-forcely check factorize $n$ with the primes under $x = \sqrt[^5]{n}$. Then if $n$ is still larger than 1, other primes left to check is greater than $x$, which means there can only be at most 4 such primes. Analyzing the cases, we can see the answer will be 1 unless $n = p^2, p^3 \text{ or } p^4$ for some $p$.

XOR Operation/ Greedy?: Contest 5, Problem B
For each $a[i]$, define the favorite number as the best $b$ that $a[i]$ can choose (i.e. $a[i] \oplus b$ is smallest). For each $b[i]$ we define it similarly.
Without loss of generality, we assume there is no duplicate number in $A$ nor $B$. (The solution can be easily extended to the general case.)

Lemma 1: If for some number $a[i]$ and $b[j]$, they are each other’s favorite number, then $a[i] \oplus b[j]$ must be in the optimal solution. (If not, we can repair them together and the answer becomes better.)

Then we see this problem from a graph perspective: See each number as a vertex in a directed graph, and if $b$ is $a$’s favorite number, there is an directed edge from $a$ to $b$.

Lemma 2: There will be not cycle of length $>$ 2.
Proof (by contradiction): Suppose there is some cycle $x_1, x_2, x_3, …, x_n$. Then we have $x_1 \oplus x_2 < x_2 \oplus x_3 …. < x_n \oplus x_1 < x_1 \oplus x_2$. Contradiction.

Therefore, the idea to solve this problem is to effectively finding the cycle of length 2, putting the pair into the answer, and solve the problem again.

## HDU Multi-University Training 2019, Contest 3

Segment tree for optimizing DP: Problem B
First we can binary search on the answer, and then we consider a $O(n^2)$ DP where $dp[i]$ means the maximum number of partitions we can have ending at $i$th position. Then transition is as follows $$dp[i] = max_{j} (dp[j]) \text{ s.t. } sum[i] – sum[j] \leq val$$. Since the constraints is in a continuous range of prefix sum, we can keep them in a segment tree to do fast maximum queries.

Wilson’s Theorem: Problem F
For any prime $p$, we have $$(p – 1)! = -1 \text{ (mod } p)$$

## HDU Multi-University Training 2019, Contest 2

Longest Increasing Subsequence Revisited: Problem B
An alternative way to solve LIS: Using a segment or BIT to keep the maximum length ending with number $i$. To choose the lexicographically smallest/largest, we can greedy pick the first/last available number.

Contribution Technique?: Problem F
The key thing to notice is the product of any two unit cube. No matter how we split the cubes, they always stays the same. That means the answer is always the same, which equals to the sum of products of all pairs of unit cube. We can calculate that with the help of FWT.

Tricky Build-up of min-cut graph: Problem H
Consider having two items $A, B$ in a min-cut graph and the source $S$ and the sink $T$. Consider 5 edges between those vertices: $SA, SB, AB, AT, BT$. We can set up the cost of those edges properly so that cutting in some edges corresponds the profit that we are not able to get by seperating them. There are 5 variables and 4 equations, so we can have some solutions. In the setting of the problem, we can always get a non-negative solution. Then we get add the graphs of two vertices up and get the final graph.

Palindrome Tree: Problem I
Using DFS/Binary Lifting on the fail tree, we can know if there is a suffix palindrome of certain length. Then can add them to the answer.

## Learning notes on Palindrome Tree

##### Basic things this structure can do
1. the number of distinct palindrome substring in a string (which turns out to be the number of extra states, which is linear)
2. the number of times each palindrome appears
3. The number of palindromes (or sum of the corresponding properties) that ends in a certain location.
##### Properties
1. The size of the tree is $O(n)$. This is a result of the fact that at most one new distinct palindrome can be added when we add a new character. (Otherwise, choose the longest of them, $s_{longest}$, and the shorter one will definitely appear if we flip it from the middle point of $s_{longest}$.)
2. Each fail pointer is pointing to a smaller index. So when we want to do tree DP, we can just use the index as the topological order.
##### Other tricks:

Adding characters from both sides: HDU 5421
To do such thing, we can keep a extra pointer at the begining of the string. Both pointer will be the longest palindrome prefix/suffix. The operations will be symmetric, and, additionally, when the new distinct palindrome we get is the new whole string, we need to update both pointer to keep the property of the pointers.

To be continued…

## Learning notes on Fast Bitwise Transform

FWT (Fast Walsh-Hadamard Transform) is a good tool to do fast bitwise convolution. For example, in xor operation, given sequence $A$ and $B$, we can calculate $C$ in $O(n \log n)$ such that $C[i] = \sum_{j \oplus k = i} A[j] \cdot B[k]$.

There are two main properties for the $FWT$ functions for different bitwise operations, where are pretty similar to FFT. The first one is that $FWT(C) = FWT(A) * FWT(B)$, where “$*$” is element-wise multiplication. The second is that there is also $UFWT$ which let us convert the sequence back.

Especially, for “or” operation, $FWT(A)[i] = \sum_{i | j = i} A[j]$, which essentially means the sum over all the subsets for $i$; for “and” operation, $FWT(A)[i] = \sum_{i \land j = i} A[j]$, i.e., sum over supersets.

##### Related Problems

Frequency Convolution: SRM518 Hard, HDU 5909, HDU 6596
This is the basic application for this transform. Sometimes we can also use fast exponentiation to speed up the same convolution.

Accelerating Brute Force: CF662C
We can see for each way of brute force as a convolution between the frequency and the minimum one we can have for certain number. Thus we can do a convolution for once and get the answer for all.

Making the problem easier: CF800D
If we are asked to solve a problem for some values $x$ and solving for the supersets of $x$ is easier, then we can solve the superset version and transform it back to the exact value version.

## HDU Multi-University Training 2019, Contest 1

Dynamic Programming: Problem A
Since there can only be four numbers, we can do a four-dimensional DP to record the last occurrences of the numbers. The time complexity is $O(n^4)$. One dimension can be used to record the current number, so we can reduce it to $O(n^3)$ space to fit into the space.

XOR Basis: Problem B
This can be solved by segment tree in $O(n \log n \log A)$, but this is too slow. Instead, we can keep a upper-triangular basis for each right bound. We should put the number with higher index as high as possible and put other numbers down. In this way, when we are querying the maximum for range $[l, r]$, we take the number in the “$r$ basis” when it is in the bound ($l_i \geq l$), and it can be guaranteed that every number we take is valid, i.e. can be expressed as a linear combination of the number in $[l_i, l]$.

Sliding Windows for String Matching on SAM: Problem F
There are several things to notice: The first is that the range for possible transition for copying text is increasing, which means we can use a deque to maintain the minimum. Furthermore, since we can prove the DP value is non-decreasing, we can just choose the smallest position to do the copy. To find that position $j$, we maintain a SAM for $s[1;j-1]$ and keeping adding $s[j]$ into the SAM until we can find $s[j;i]$ in $s[1;j-1]$. We use a pointer $pt$ to record the current matching. To delete a character, we just keep moving $pt$ until $curlen \leq st[pt].len$.

Generating Function/ Convolution: Problem L
Write the operation as generating function, we have $$\sum_i b_i x^i = (\sum_i a_i x^i) (\sum_i x^{ik})$$, which tells us that the order of operations does not matter. We also see that the operation of the same kind can be combined together by using the fact that the coefficient of $x^t$ in $(\sum_i x^{i}) ^ l$ is ${t + l – 1}\choose{l – 1}$. Then we can use three NTTs to get the answer.

## Prüfer Code, Cayley’s Formula, etc

Prufer Code is a way to represent a labeled tree as an array, which is related some tree counting problems

The Prüfer code is a way of encoding a labeled tree with $n$ vertices using a sequence of $n-2$ integers in the interval $[0, n−1]$

##### Conversion and Bijection between Tree and Prüfer code

We can construct Prüfer Code from a given tree by removing the smallest leaf and add the number of the only vertex adjacent to it to the list until there are only two vertices.

We can also constructing a tree from a given Prüfer Code by the following procedure.
for i from 1 to n – 2:
Let the smallest leaf not in the current sequence and not used be u
Let the first element in the sequence be v;
Mark v as used;
Connect u and v;
Delete the first element in the sequence;
endfor
Connect the last two unused vertices;

From the construction, we know each Prüfer Code has a tree, and each tree has a Prüfer Code. Let $f: \text{Tree} \rightarrow \text{Prüfer Code}$ be the function we use to convert a tree to a Prüfer Code. We can further prove $f^{-1}(f(t)) = t$ for any tree $t$ by induction, which implies that there is a bijection between labeled trees with $n$ vertices and Prüfer Code with length $n – 2$. The direct result of the bijection is Cayley’s Formula as shown below.

##### Cayley’s Formula and Generalized Version

Theorem 1 (Cayley’s Formula): For any integer $n > 0$, the number of trees of $n$ labeled vertices is $n^{n-2}$.

Theorem 2 (Generalized Cayley’s Formula): Let $T_{n, k}$ be the number of labelled forests on $n$ vertices with $k$ connected components, such that vertices $1, 2, …, k$ all belong to different connected components. Then $T_{n, k} = k n^{n-k-1}$.

##### Property of Prüfer Code

1. The vertex with the highest number will not be in the Code
2. Each vertex $i$ appears $d_i – 1$ times in the Code, where $d_i$ is the degree of vertex $i$.

Lemma 3: Given the degree of each vertex in a tree of size $n$, $d_1, d_2, …, d_n$, the number of possible trees is $$\frac{(n – 2)!}{(d_1 – 1)! (d_2 – 1)! … (d_n – 1)!}$$

##### Related Problems

Prüfer-Code-like Bijection: CF156D
Problem in short: Given a graph, find the number of ways to connect the graph with minimum edges.
Idea: We can construct sequence $P$ and $Q$ that represent the final graph similar to Prüfer Code. Let $k$ be the current number of connected component. $P$ denotes the vertex $v$ that we connect to when we remove the smallest labeled leaf component $C$ one by one. $Q$ denotes the vertex in $C$ that we use to connect $v$. The bijection between the sequences can be proved in a similar manner. Since for each sequence $P$, we will have $\prod_i sz_i$ different $Q$s, where $sz_i$ is the size of the $i$th component, the answer will be $$n^{k-2} \cdot \prod_i sz_i$$.

Generalized Cayley’s Formula: CF1109D
Trivial Application

##### Some Properties
• Each state in the SAM corresponds an equivalent class of substrings of $s$ which appear in the same set of positions.
• For some state $v$, $len(v) – minlen(v) + 1$ is the number of distinct substring in the corresponding class.

To check if $t$ occurs in $s$, we can keep matching $t$ on the SAM of $s$, go to the next state if the current character is matched, or get through suffix link otherwise.

If we want to know how much a string $t$ can be matched for each state in the SAM of $s$, we can first keep matching it and record whenever the character is matched, and then we can propagate the value through the links.

##### About Paths in the DAG

Fact: Every distinct path from the root is a distinct substring.

Following from this fact, we can use DP to calculate lots of things, such as number of distinct substrings, sum of distinct integers.
Example: sum of dictinct integers, Morse Code